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Inductive Effect (I Effect)

Definition:- 

   Inductive effect is an electronic effect in organic compounds. When polar character induced in a non polar bond of C-C due to delocalisation of sigma electron in compound than it is known as Inductive Effect.

   Inductive Effect is a weak electronic effect due to partial shifting of electron pair in compounds and presence of partial charge on carbon chain and I group.

   It is a distance depending effect on increasing distance of carbon atom from I group, strength of inductive effect decrease.

   Inductive effect obeys DNP rule (priority of I groups in organic compounds = distance from I groups, number of I groups, power / strength of I groups ).

 

 

 

Types of Inductive Effect:- (Video link:- https://youtu.be/HpViTJECpBs )

   The part of organic compound which is donate electron pair in compound is known as +I Group (shows positive inductive effect) whereas the part of organic compound which attract sigma electron pair is known as -I Effect (shows negative inductive effect).

   Electron Realising Group (ERG) / Electron Withdrawing Group (EWG) / Chemical species which attract sigma electrons are known as -I Effect (Negative Inductive Effect).

   Electron Donating Group (EDG) / Chemical species which donate sigma electrons are known as +I Effect (Positive Inductive Effect).

   

      Examples 

           +I groups :- negative ions attached with carbon chain, Alkyl substituted groups, isotopes of hydrogen etc.

           -I groups :- positively charged, partial positively charged functional groups (Nitro, cyanide, aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid, ester, alcohol, amine, phenyl ring, unsaturated carbon chain etc.)

 

   NOTE:- Hydrogen atom (Atomic No. = 1 & Mass No. = 1) neither positive inductive effect nor negative inductive effect shows.

  

Application of Inductive Effect:-

  1.) Acidic Nature of organic compounds :-

        In organic compounds by increasing negative inductive effect / -I Effect and decreasing positive inductive effect / +I Effect acidic nature of organic compound increase.

 

  2.) Basic Nature of organic compounds :-

       In organic compounds by increasing positive inductive effect / +I Effect and decreasing negative inductive effect / -I Effect basic nature of organic compound increase.

 

  3.) Stability of carbocation intermediate / carbonium ion :-

       Stability of carbocation intermediate / carbonium ion increase by increasing positive inductive effect / +I Effect and decreasing negative inductive effect / -I Effect.

 

  4.) Stability of carbanion intermediate :-

        Stability of carbanion intermediate increase by increasing negative inductive effect / -I Effect and decreasing positive inductive effect / +I Effect

 5.) Stability of free radical intermediate :-

       Stability of free radical increase by increasing positive inductive effect / +I Effect and decreasing negative inductive effect / -I Effect.

INDUCTIVE EFFECT
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